Aging is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, which are preceded by early, negative remodeling of the vasculature. Low physical activity is a well-established risk factor associated with the incidence and development of disease. However, recent physical activity literature indicates the importance of considering the 24-h movement spectrum. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to examine the impact of the 24-h movement spectrum, specifically physical activity (aerobic and resistance training), sedentary behavior, and sleep, on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular outcomes in older adults, with a focus on recent evidence (<10 yr) and sex-based considerations. The review identifies that both aerobic training and being physically active (compared with sedentary) are associated with improvements in endothelial function, arterial stiffness, and cerebrovascular function. Additionally, there is evidence of sex-based differences in endothelial function: a blunted improvement in aerobic training in postmenopausal women compared with men. While minimal research has been conducted in older adults, resistance training does not appear to influence arterial stiffness. Poor sleep quantity or quality are associated with both impaired endothelial function and increased arterial stiffness. Finally, the review highlights mechanistic pathways involved in the regulation of vascular and cerebrovascular function, specifically the balance between pro- and antiatherogenic factors, which mediate the relationship between the 24-h movement spectrum and vascular outcomes. Finally, this review proposes future research directions: examining the role of duration and intensity of training, combining aerobic and resistance training, and exploration of sex-based differences in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular outcomes.