Immediate Dysfunction of Vaccine-Elicited CD8+ T Cells Primed in the Absence of CD4+ T Cells Academic Article uri icon

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  • CD4(+) T cell help is critical for optimal CD8(+) T cell memory differentiation and maintenance in many experimental systems. In addition, many reports have identified reduced primary CD8(+) T cell responses in the absence of CD4(+) T cell help, which often coincides with reduced Ag or pathogen clearance. In this study, we demonstrate that absence of CD4(+) T cells at the time of adenovirus vector immunization of mice led to immediate impairments in early CD8(+) T cell functionality and differentiation. Unhelped CD8(+) T cells exhibited a reduced effector phenotype, decreased ex vivo cytotoxicity, and decreased capacity to produce cytokines. This dysfunctional state was imprinted within 3 d of immunization. Unhelped CD8(+) T cells expressed elevated levels of inhibitory receptors and exhibited transcriptomic exhaustion and anergy profiles by gene set enrichment analysis. Dysfunctional, impaired effector differentiation also occurred following immunization of CD4(+) T cell-deficient mice with a poxvirus vector. This study demonstrates that following priming with viral vectors, CD4(+) T cell help is required to promote both the expansion and acquisition of effector functions by CD8(+) T cells, which is accomplished by preventing immediate dysfunction.


  • Provine, Nicholas M
  • Larocca, Rafael A
  • Aid, Malika
  • Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo
  • Badamchi-Zadeh, Alexander
  • Borducchi, Erica N
  • Yates, Kathleen B
  • Abbink, Peter
  • Kirilova, Marinela
  • Ng’ang’a, David
  • Bramson, Jonathan
  • Haining, W Nicholas
  • Barouch, Dan H

publication date

  • September 1, 2016