Diagnosis and Acute Management of Adolescent Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome: A Systematic Review
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PURPOSE: This study aimed to synthesize qualitative and quantitative data on the diagnosis and effective management of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) in the adolescent population. METHODS: Using keywords, 1,334 studies published between December 1954 and December 2019 were extracted from MEDLINE via PubMed, Embase via OVID, CINAHL via EBSCO, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. Studies were evaluated by two independent reviewers using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. RESULTS: The search yielded 148 studies for full-text review, of which 21 were included in this systematic review. A total of 10 articles were related to the diagnosis of CHS, while 11 articles discussed the treatment and management of adolescent cases of CHS. CONCLUSIONS: CHS in the adolescent population fulfills the major and minor diagnostic criteria of CHS in the adult population; however, in adolescent patients, CHS may present more frequently in females, with the earliest reported case presenting at age 15 years. There appears to be a substantial proportion (21%) of adolescent patients diagnosed with CHS that have a history of anxiety and depression; however, higher quality studies to assess the prevalence are warranted. Although haloperidol and topical capsaicin cream may provide symptom relief in isolated cases, complete cessation of cannabis use is currently the only known effective treatment.
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