Various transportation agencies have begun to consider implementing preventive maintenance (PM) strategies as part of their regular pavement management programs. To determine whether a PM strategy is more cost-effective than a conventional maintenance strategy, various technical and economic analyses were carried out. Currently, most agencies have limited information on the cost-effectiveness (CE) and long-term performance of PM strategies, so it is difficult to determine when and where these treatments should be used. The use of PM treatments based on a CE calculation and analysis is examined, and a decision tree (including treatments and strategies) is developed for each functional pavement class of the Ontario road network. Pavement data from the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario are used to perform a CE calculation for each suggested PM treatment and strategy. On the basis of a comparison and analysis of CE calculation results, guidance is provided on the right treatment, time, and strategy cost level for each functional pavement PM program within the Ontario environment. The results are summarized in the form of a decision tree.