The delivery of medical care services in U.S. nursing homes (NHs) is dependent on a workforce that comprises physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants. Each of these disciplines operates under a unique regulatory framework while adhering to common standards of care. NH provider characteristics and their roles in NH care can illuminate potential links to clinical outcomes and overall quality of care with important policy and cost implications. This perspective provides an overview of what is currently known about medical provider practice in NH and organizational models of practice. Links to quality, both conceptual and established, are presented as is a research and policy agenda that addresses the gaps in the evidence base within the context of our ever-changing health care landscape.