Post-Discharge Prophylaxis With Rivaroxaban Reduces Fatal and Major Thromboembolic Events in Medically Ill Patients
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BACKGROUND: Hospitalized acutely ill medical patients are at risk for fatal and major thromboembolic events. Whether use of extended-duration primary thromboprophylaxis can prevent such events is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether extended-duration rivaroxaban reduces the risk of venous and arterial fatal and major thromboembolic events without significantly increasing major bleeding in acutely ill medical patients after discharge. METHODS: MARINER (A Study of Rivaroxaban [JNJ-39039039] on the Venous Thromboembolic Risk in Post-Hospital Discharge Patients) studied acutely ill medical patients with additional risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Medically ill patients with a baseline creatinine clearance ≥50 ml/min were randomized in a double-blind fashion to rivaroxaban 10 mg or placebo daily at hospital discharge for 45 days. Exploratory efficacy analyses were performed with the intent-to-treat population including all data through day 45. Time-to-event curves were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. A blinded independent committee adjudicated all clinical events. RESULTS: In total, 4,909 patients were assigned to rivaroxaban and 4,913 patients to placebo. The mean age was 67.8 years, 55.5% were men, mean baseline creatinine clearance was 87.8 ml/min, and mean duration of hospitalization was 6.7 days. The pre-specified composite efficacy endpoint (symptomatic VTE, myocardial infarction, nonhemorrhagic stroke, and cardiovascular death) occurred in 1.28% and 1.77% of patients in the rivaroxaban and placebo groups, respectively (hazard ratio: 0.72; 95% confidence interval: 0.52 to 1.00; p = 0.049), whereas major bleeding occurred in 0.27% and 0.18% of patients in the rivaroxaban and placebo groups, respectively (hazard ratio: 1.44; 95% confidence interval: 0.62 to 3.37; p = 0.398). CONCLUSIONS: Extended-duration rivaroxaban in hospitalized medically ill patients resulted in a 28% reduction in fatal and major thromboembolic events without a significant increase in major bleeding. (A Study of Rivaroxaban [JNJ-39039039] on the Venous Thromboembolic Risk in Post-Hospital Discharge Patients [MARINER]; NCT02111564).
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