Characterization of the pancreatic hormones from the Brockmann body of the tilapia: implications for islet xenograft studies
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The Brockmann body of the teleost fish, the tilapia (Oreochromis nilotica) has been considered as a potential source of islet xenograft tissue for patients with insulin-dependent diabetes. This study describes the purification from an extract of tilapia Brockmann bodies of insulin and several peptides arising from different pathways of post-translational processing of two proglucagons, two prosomatostatins and proPYY. The primary structure of tilapia insulin is similar to insulins from other teleosts (particularly the anglerfish, Lophius americanus) except that the strongly conserved glutamine residue at position 5 in the A-chain, a residue that is important in the binding of insulin to its receptor, is replaced by glutamic acid. In common with other teleosts, the tilapia Brockmann body expresses two non-allelic glucagon genes. Alternative pathways of post-translational processing lead to glucagons with 29 and 36 amino acid residues derived from proglucagon I and glucagons with 29 and 32 residues derived from proglucagon II. Glucagon-like peptides with 30 and 34 residues derived from proglucagon II were also isolated. In each case, the longer peptide is a C-terminally extended form of the shorter. Tilapia peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) was isolated in a C-terminally alpha-amidated from with 36 amino acid residues that is structurally similar (89% sequence identity) to anglerfish PYY. A 30-amino acid peptide, representing the C-terminal flanking peptide of PYY, was also isolated that shows only 53% sequence identity with the corresponding anglerfish peptide. Tilapia somatostatin-14 is identical to mammalian somatostatin but the [Tyr7, Gly10] somatostatin-containing peptide derived from prosomatostatin II contains the additional substitution (Phe11-->Leu) compared with the corresponding peptide from other teleosts.
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