The nature of the interstellar medium of the starburst low-metallicity galaxy Haro 11: a multi-phase model of the infrared emission Journal Articles uri icon

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  • (abridged) Our goal is to describe the multi-phase ISM of the IR bright low-metallicity galaxy Haro 11, dissecting the photoionised and photodissociated gas components. We present observations of the mid- and far-IR fine-structure cooling lines obtained with the Spitzer/IRS and Herschel/PACS spectrometers. We use the spectral synthesis code Cloudy to methodically model the ionised and neutral gas from which these lines originate. We find that the mid- and far-IR lines account for ~1% of the total IR luminosity L_TIR. Haro 11 is undergoing a phase of intense star formation, as traced by the brightest line [OIII] 88um, with L_[OIII]/L_TIR ~0.3%, and high ratios of [NeIII]/[NeII] and [SIV]/[SIII]. Due to their different origins, the observed lines require a multi-phase modeling comprising: a compact HII region, dense fragmented photodissociation regions (PDRs), a diffuse extended low-ionisation/neutral gas which has a volume filling factor of at least 90%, and porous warm dust in proximity to the stellar source. For a more realistic picture of the ISM of Haro 11 we would need to model the clumpy source and gas structures. We combine these 4 model components to explain the emission of 17 spectral lines, investigate the global energy balance of the galaxy through its spectral energy distribution, and establish a phase mass inventory. While the ionic emission lines of Haro 11 essentially originate from the dense HII region component, a diffuse low-ionisation gas is needed to explain the [NeII], [NII], and [CII] line intensities. The [OIII] 88um line intensity is not fully reproduced by our model, hinting towards the possible presence of yet another low-density high-ionisation medium. The [OI] emission is consistent with a dense PDR of low covering factor, and we find no evidence for an X-ray dominated component. The PDR component accounts for only 10% of the [CII] emission.


  • Cormier, D
  • Lebouteiller, V
  • Madden, SC
  • Abel, N
  • Hony, S
  • Galliano, F
  • Baes, M
  • Barlow, MJ
  • Cooray, A
  • De Looze, I
  • Galametz, M
  • Karczewski, OŁ
  • Parkin, TJ
  • Rémy, A
  • Sauvage, M
  • Spinoglio, L
  • Wilson, Christine D
  • Wu, R

publication date

  • December 2012