Expression of the Th1 Chemokine IFN-γ-Inducible Protein 10 in the Airway Alters Mucosal Allergic Sensitization in Mice
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Although the preliminary characterization of chemokines and their receptors has been prolific, comparatively little is known about the role of chemokines in the evolution of immune responses. We speculate that the preferential recruitment of a particular immune cell population has implications for the short- and long-term features of an adaptive response. To test this hypothesis, we employed adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to express the Th1-affiliated, CXC chemokine IFN-gamma-inducible protein (IP) 10 in the airways of mice undergoing a mucosal sensitization regimen known to result in a Th2-polarized allergic response. This resulted in a approximately 60-75% inhibition of eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL); these inflammatory changes were accompanied by enhanced IFN-gamma, ablated IL-4, and, peculiarly, unaltered IL-5 and eotaxin levels in the BAL. The effect of IP-10 expression was shown to be dependent on IFN-gamma, as there was no statistically significant reduction in BAL eosinophilia in IFN-gamma knockout mice subjected to the IP-10 intervention. Flow cytometric analysis of mononuclear cells in the lung revealed a approximately 60% reduction in the fraction of CD4(+) cells expressing T1/ST2, a putative Th2 marker, and a parallel increase in the proportion expressing intracellular IFN-gamma following IP-10 treatment. The effect of IP-10 expression at the time of initial Ag encounter is persistent, as mice rechallenged with OVA following the resolution of acute inflammation exhibited reduced eosinophilia and IL-4 in the BAL. Collectively, these data illustrate that local expression of the chemokine IP-10 can introduce Th1 phenomena to a Th2-predisposed context and subvert the development of a Th2 response.
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