Kinetic mechanism of the GCN5-related chromosomal aminoglycoside acetyltransferase AAC(6')-Ii from Enterococcus faecium: evidence of dimer subunit cooperativity
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The aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetyltransferase AAC(6')-Ii from Enterococcus faecium is an important microbial resistance determinant and a member of the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) superfamily. We report here the further characterization of this enzyme in terms of the kinetic mechanism of acetyl transfer and identification of rate-contributing step(s) in catalysis, as well as investigations into the binding of both acetyl-CoA and aminoglycoside substrates to the AAC(6')-Ii dimer. Product and dead-end inhibition studies revealed that AAC(6')-Ii follows an ordered bi-bi ternary complex mechanism with acetyl-CoA binding first followed by antibiotic. Solvent viscosity studies demonstrated that aminoglycoside binding and product release govern the rate of acetyl transfer, as evidenced by changes in both the k(cat)/K(b) for aminoglycoside and k(cat), respectively, with increasing solvent viscosity. Solvent isotope effects were consistent with our viscosity studies that diffusion-controlled processes and not the chemical step were rate-limiting in drug modification. The patterns of partial and mixed inhibition observed during our mechanistic studies were followed up by investigating the possibility of subunit cooperativity in the AAC(6')-Ii dimer. Through the use of AAC-Trp(164) --> Ala, an active mutant which exists as a monomer in solution, the partial nature of the competitive inhibition observed in wild-type dead-end inhibition studies was alleviated. Isothermal titration calorimetry studies also indicated two nonequivalent antibiotic binding sites for the AAC(6')-Ii dimer but only one binding site for the Trp(164) --> Ala mutant. Taken together, these results demonstrate subunit cooperativity in the AAC(6')-Ii dimer, with possible relevance to other oligomeric members of the GNAT superfamily.
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