Mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics
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Microbial resistance to antibiotics is manifested by changes in antibiotic permeability, alteration of target molecules, enzymatic degradation of the antibiotics, and efflux of antimicrobials from the cytosol. Bacteria and other microorganisms use all of these mechanisms to evade the toxic effects of antibiotics. Recent research on the molecular aspects of these mechanisms, often informed by atomic resolution structures of proteins, enzymes and nucleic acids involved in these processes, has deepened our understanding of antibiotic action and resistance and, in several cases, spurred the development of strategies to overcome resistance in vitro and in vivo.
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