- Recurrent seizure activity induced during kindling has been reported to cause an increase in the hilar area of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. To date, very little is known about the mechanism of this increase. This study investigated the time course for kindling-induced changes in the hilar area of the dentate gyrus at seven days, one month, and two months post-kindling. Hilar area of the dentate gyrus was significantly increased by approximately 46% at seven days and remained elevated at one month, but declined back to control levels by two months. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunostaining was also evaluated at the same time points to determine whether kindling-induced changes in the hilar area of the dentate gyrus are related to kindling-induced glial cell changes. Increases in hilar GFAP immunostaining by approximately 57% were observed at seven days and at one month post-kindling, but not at two months post-kindling. These findings indicate that kindling-induced changes in the hilar area of the dentate gyrus and kindling-induced glial cell changes follow a similar time course, and that kindling-induced glial cell changes may mediate the observed changes in the hilar area of the dentate gyrus.