Developmental trajectories of social participation in individuals with cerebral palsy: a multicentre longitudinal study Journal Articles uri icon

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  • AimThis study aimed to determine the developmental trajectories of social participation, by level of gross motor function and intellectual disability, in a Dutch population of individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 1 to 24 years.MethodAs part of the Pediatric Rehabilitation Research in the Netherlands (PERRIN+), 424 individuals with CP (261 males, 163 females; mean age [SD] 9y 6mo [6y 2mo]; Gross Motor Function Classification [GMFCS] levels IV [50% level I]; 87% with spastic CP; 26% with intellectual disability) were longitudinally followed for up to 4 years between 2002 and 2007. Social participation was assessed with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales survey. Effects of age, GMFCS level and intellectual disability were analysed using multilevel modelling.ResultsThe developmental trajectories for individuals in GMFCS levels I to IV did not significantly differ from each other. For individuals without intellectual disability, the degree of social participation increased with age and stabilized at about 18 years. These individuals reached social participation levels similar to typically developing individuals. The trajectories were significantly less favourable for individuals in GMFCS level V and individuals with intellectual disability.InterpretationIntellectual disability is more distinctive for the development of social participation than GMFCS level. The developmental trajectories will support individuals with CP and their families in setting realistic goals and professionals in optimizing the choice of interventions at an early age.


  • Gorter, Jan Willem
  • Tan, Siok Swan
  • Wiegerink, Diana JHG
  • Vos, Rimke C
  • Smits, Dirk Wouter
  • Voorman, Jeanine M
  • Twisk, Jos WR
  • Ketelaar, Marjolijn
  • Roebroeck, Marij E

publication date

  • April 2014

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