Amid changing environmental conditions and persisting health deficits, First Nations people in Canada face mounting risks to their neurological and mental health. While the influence of environmental change on the human brain poses concerns to all members of society, the ethical implications of such impacts are different for indigenous peoples who have close relationships with the environment. First Nations make extensive use of Western systems of medicine and environmental sciences. However, persistent gaps between traditional systems of knowledge and Western science contribute to the marginalization of First Nations under current healthcare and environmental management systems, and create challenges for researchers who seek to work with and support First Nations people. This chapter addresses the role that neuroethics can play in bringing indigenous knowledge and Western institutions of science together in protecting the health of the brain.