Urinary cysteinyl leukotrienes in one-year follow-up of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for peripheral arterial occlusive disease
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BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Treatment of severe peripheral arterial occlusive disease requires percutaneous revascularization. However, little is known about risk factors or predictors for reocclusion/restenosis. Cysteinyl leukotrienes are highly bioactive lipid mediators of inflammation. Their intravascular production may take place in the atheromatous plaque or result from interaction within activated leukocyte-platelet aggregates. METHODS: We prospectively measured urinary leukotriene E4, the main end-metabolite of cysteinyl leukotrienes in a group of 179 subjects with peripheral artery occlusive disease of the lower extremities. At the enrollment to the study, 22.9% had angioplasty and the remaining had angioplasty with stent implantation. During 12-month follow-up, 29.6% developed reocclusion/restenosis despite a standard pharmacotherapy. We evaluated treatment outcomes at 1, 3, 6 and 12-month follow-up visits, along with urinary leukotriene E4 excretion. RESULTS: During the study period, we observed a linear increase of urinary leukotriene E4 excretion only in subjects whose lower limb ischemia worsened. Moreover, elevated leukotriene E4 in urine was found only in subjects who developed reocclusion/restenosis. This was significant not only as a coincidence at the time of the follow-up visit, but leukotriene E4 elevation preceded clinical manifestation of reocclusion/restenosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that serial measurements of urinary leukotriene E4 allowed to predict failure of angioplasty with/or without stent implantation for peripheral artery occlusive disease. However, to prove causality between cysteinyl leukotrienes overproduction and occlusive lower limb ischemia, a clinical trial with leukotrienes modifying drugs would be required.
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