Upcoming biomarkers for the diagnosis of Kawasaki disease: A review
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Kawasaki disease (KD) is a major cause of acquired heart disease among children and increases the risk of myocardial infarction. While the biochemical basis of the disease is unclear, the evidence suggests interplay between a microbial infection and a genetic predisposition in the development of the disease. Diagnosis of KD based on clinical observation is not completely reliable and is problematic due to the time-sensitive nature of the disease. Hence, identification of inflammatory, proteomic, and genetic biomarkers may assist in earlier and more effective diagnosis and treatment. This review of observational studies and clinical trials analyzes biomarkers in recent research that may be used to establish a gold standard test for KD diagnosis. 65 articles in the literature are assessed to investigate these new biomarkers in addition to biomarkers presently in use. ESR≥40mm/h, leukocyte count ≥16∗10(9)/L and increased WBC count are together suggestive of the presence of KD. Among proteomic biomarkers, elevated NT-proBNP and differing levels of several other proteomic biomarkers such as iNOS in monocytes and neutrophils have been observed in KD patients. Genetic polymorphisms of six HLA class I genes have also been linked with the disease, alongside MICA alleles A4 and A5.1. The results suggest that NT-proBNP is currently a very promising biomarker for future investigation; further research is warranted to allow for accurate and early detection of the disease using this biomarker.
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