Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is known to be up-regulated in both glomeruli and tubules in patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD), but its role remains unclear. Previous studies show that PTHrP-induced hypertrophic response in mesangial cells (MCs) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tubuloepithelial cells can be mediated by TGF-β1. In the present study, although long-term PHTrP (1–34) treatment increased the mRNA and protein level of TGF-β1 in primary rat MCs, fibronectin up-regulation occurred earlier, suggesting that fibronectin induction is independent of TGF-β1/Smad signaling. We thus evaluated the involvement of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and found that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species mediates PTHrP (1–34)-induced Src kinase activation. Src phosphorylates EGFR at tyrosine 845 and then transactive EGFR. Subsequent PI3K activation mediates Akt and ERK1/2 activation. Akt and ERK1/2 discretely lead to excessive protein synthesis of fibronectin. Our study thus demonstrates the new role of PTHrP in fibronectin up-regulation for the first time in glomerular MCs. These data also provided new insights to guide development of therapy for glomerular sclerosis.