Activity and expression of Xenopus laevis matrix metalloproteinases: Identification of a novel role for the hormone prolactin in regulating collagenolysis in both amphibians and mammals Journal Articles uri icon

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  • AbstractProlactin (PRL) has long been implicated in Xenopus metamorphosis as an anti‐metamorphic and/or juvenilizing hormone. Numerous studies showed that PRL could prevent effects of either endogenous or exogenous thyroid hormone (TH; T3). It has been shown that expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is induced by TH during Xenopus metamorphosis. Direct in vivo evidence, however, for such anti‐TH effects by PRL with respect to MMPs has not been available for the early phase of Xenopus development or metamorphosis. To understand the functional role of PRL, we investigated effects of PRL on Xenopus collagenase‐3 (XCL3) and collagenase‐4 (XCL4) expression in a cultured Xenopus laevis cell line, XL‐177. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that XCL3 and XCL4 expression were not detected in control or T3‐treated cells, but were differentially induced by PRL in a dose‐ and time‐dependent fashion. Moreover, treatment with IL‐1α as well as phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), a protein kinase C (PKC) activator, or H8, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, augmented PRL‐induced collagenase expression, suggesting that multiple protein kinase pathways and cytokines may participate in PRL‐induced collagenase expression. Interestingly, XCL3 expression could be induced in XL‐177 cells by T3, but only when co‐cultured with prometamorphic Xenopus tadpole tails (stage 54/55), suggesting that the tails secrete a required intermediate signaling molecule(s) for T3‐induced XCL3 expression. Taken together, these data demonstrate that XCL3 and XCL4 can be differentially induced by PRL and T3 and further suggest that PRL is a candidate regulator of TH‐independent collagenase expression during the organ/tissue remodeling which occurs in Xenopus development. J. Cell. Physiol. 201: 165, 2004. © 2004 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.


  • West-Mays, Judith
  • Jung, Jae‐Chang
  • West‐Mays, Judith A
  • Stramer, Brian M
  • Byrne, Michael H
  • Scott, Sumi
  • Mody, Mehernosh K
  • Sadow, Peter M
  • Krane, Stephen M
  • Fini, M Elizabeth

publication date

  • October 2004