Content of inpatient rehabilitation for patients with traumatic brain injury: A comparison of Canadian and American facilities
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Objective: To compare components of inpatient rehabilitation (IR) for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) between Canada and the US facilities. Design: Secondary analysis of the TBI-practice-based evidence dataset. Participants: Patients with TBI who had a higher Functional Independence Measure (FIMTM) cognitive function score (≥21) that were admitted to 1 IR facility in Canada (n = 103) and 9 IR facilities in the US (n = 401). Main measures: demographic and clinical characteristics, type and intensity of activities by discipline, discharge location, FIM-Rasch score, social participation and quality of life. Results: Time from injury to rehabilitation admission was significantly longer in the Canadian cohort and they experienced a longer rehabilitation length of stay (p < .001, Cohen's d > .8). Patients in Canada received a greater total time of individual therapy and lower intensity of interventions per week from all disciplines. They also showed a higher score at discharge in FIM components, while US patients had better cognitive recovery and community participation long-term post-discharge. Conclusions: This study informs stakeholders of the large variation in service provision for patients who were treated in these two countries. These findings suggest the need for robust analyzes to investigate predictors of short and long-term outcomes considering the variation in health-care delivery. List of abbreviations: TBI: traumatic brain injury, CSI: comprehensive severity index, LoS: length of stay, OT: occupational therapy, PT: physical therapy, SLP: speech language pathology, IR: inpatient rehabilitation.
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