Influence of Nanoencapsulation on Human Skin Transport of Flufenamic Acid
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The effect of the inclusion of flufenamic acid in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles on the transport of flufenamic acid into excised human skin was investigated. Penetration and permeation data were acquired using two different in vitro test systems: the Saarbrucken penetration model, where the skin acts as its own receptor medium, and the Franz diffusion cell, where the receptor medium is a buffer solution. For the stratum corneum, no differences were found between nanoencapsulated and free drug. Drug accumulation in the deeper skin layers and drug transport across human epidermis were slightly delayed for the nanoencapsulated drug compared to the free drug after shorter incubation times (<12 h). In contrast, after longer incubation times (>12 h), the nanoencapsulated drug showed a statistically significantly enhanced transport and accumulation (p < 0.05). Additionally, nanoencapsulated flufenamic acid was visualized by multiphoton fluorescence microscopy. Particles were found homogeneously distributed on the skin surface and within the dermatoglyphs, but no nanoparticles were detected within or between the corneocytes.
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