Causes and management of urogenital fistulas. A retrospective cohort study from a tertiary referral center in Saudi Arabia
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OBJECTIVES: To reviewe the etiology and management of urogenital fistulas at a tertiary care referral center. METHODS: We retrospectively identified all patients with urogenital fistula referred to the King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between January 2005 and July 2016 from electronic records. We collected data on age, parity, etiology and type of fistula, radiologic findings, management, and outcome. Results: Of the 32 patients with urogenital fistula identified, 17 (53.1%) had vesicovaginal fistula. The mean parity was 5.9 (0-15). Obstetric surgery was the most common etiology, accounting for 22 fistulas (68.8%). Twenty of these (90.9%) were complications of cesarean delivery, of which 16 (80%) were repeat cesarean delivery. Forty surgical repair procedures were performed: 20 (50%) via an abdominal approach, 11 (27.5%) via a vaginal approach, 7 (17.5) via a robotic approach, and 2 (5%) using cystoscopic fulguration. The primary surgical repair was successful in 23 patients (74%), the second repair in 5 (16.1%), and the third repair in one (3.1%). One fistula was cured after bladder catheterization, and 2 patients are awaiting their third repair. Conclusion: Unlike the etiology of urogenital fistulas in other countries, most fistulas referred to our unit followed repeat cesarean delivery: none were caused by obstructed labor, and only a few occurred after hysterectomy. Most patients were cured after the primary surgical repair.
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