Inferior vena cava syndrome in neonates: An evidence‐based systematic review of the literature
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Neonatal inferior vena cava syndrome (IVCS), though uncommon, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Information on risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes is limited. This review comprised 61 neonates across 33 reports. Thrombosis occurred in 98% and 42% involved a central venous catheter. Diagnosis was mainly established by ultrasound in 82%. Therapeutically, heparin was employed in 36% and thrombolysis in 18% of the cases. The overall mortality was 23%. An algorithm of clinical signs, investigation, and management is presented. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to establish a concrete investigational approach to neonatal IVCS and institute safe, evidence-based treatment.
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