Novel mutations (Asn 484 Lys, Thr 500 Ala, Gly 438 Glu) in Morquio B disease
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Primary deficiency of beta-galactosidase results in GM1 gangliosidosis and Morquio B disease. Of the more than 40 disease-causing mutations described in the Gal gene to date, about 75% are of the missense type and are scattered along the length of the gene. No single, major common mutation has been associated with GM1 gangliosidosis. However, a Trp 273 Leu mutation has been commonly found in the majority of patients with Morquio B disease defined genotypically to date. We now report three new mutations in three Morquio B patients where the Trp 273 Leu mutation is absent. Two of the mutations, C1502G (Asn 484 Lys) and A1548G (Thr 500 Ala), were found in twins (one male, one female) who display a mild form of Morquio B disease and keratan sulfate in the urine. In their fibroblasts, residual activity was 1.9% and 2.1% of controls. On Western blots, the 84-kDa precursor and the 64-kDa mature protein were barely detectable. The occurrence of a 45-kDa degradation product indicates that the mutated protein reached the lysosome but was abnormally processed. In the third case, we identified only a G1363A (Gly 438 Glu) mutation (a major deletion on the second allele has not been ruled out). This female patient too displays a very mild form of the disease with a residual activity of 5.7% of control values. In fibroblasts from this case, the 84-kDa precursor and the 45-kDa degradation product were present, while the mature 64-kDa form was barely detectable. The occurrence of these three mutations in the same area of the protein may define a domain involved in keratan sulfate degradation.
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