Systemic acquired resistance networks amplify airborne defense cues
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Salicylic acid (SA)-mediated innate immune responses are activated in plants perceiving volatile monoterpenes. Here, we show that monoterpene-associated responses are propagated in feed-forward loops involving the systemic acquired resistance (SAR) signaling components pipecolic acid, glycerol-3-phosphate, and LEGUME LECTIN-LIKE PROTEIN1 (LLP1). In this cascade, LLP1 forms a key regulatory unit in both within-plant and between-plant propagation of immunity. The data integrate molecular components of SAR into systemic signaling networks that are separate from conventional, SA-associated innate immune mechanisms. These networks are central to plant-to-plant propagation of immunity, potentially raising SAR to the population level. In this process, monoterpenes act as microbe-inducible plant volatiles, which as part of plant-derived volatile blends have the potential to promote the generation of a wave of innate immune signaling within canopies or plant stands. Hence, plant-to-plant propagation of SAR holds significant potential to fortify future durable crop protection strategies following a single volatile trigger.
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