Quantifying Antibody Responses Induced by Antigen-Agnostic Immunotherapies Academic Article uri icon

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  • As the development and clinical application of cancer immunotherapies continue to expand, so does the need for novel methods to dissect their mechanisms of action. Antibodies are important effector molecules in cancer therapies due to their potential to bind directly to surface-expressed antigens and facilitate Fc receptor-mediated uptake of antigens by antigen-presenting cells. Quantifying antibodies that are specific for defined antigens is straightforward. However, we describe herein a preclinical method to evaluate tumor-associated and virus-specific antibody responses to antigen-agnostic immunotherapies. This method uses autologous tumor cells as reservoirs of bulk tumor antigens, which can be bound by antibodies from the serum or plasma of tumor-bearing mice. These antibodies can then be detected and quantified using isotype-specific secondary antibodies conjugated to a fluorochrome. Alternatively, virus-infected cells can be used as a source of viral antigens. This method will enable researchers to assess antibody responses following immunotherapies without requiring pre-defined antigens. Alternatively, total virus-specific antibody responses could be studied as an alternative to more limited virus-neutralizing antibody assays. Therefore, this method can facilitate studying the role of humoral responses in the context of immunotherapies, including those that rely on the use of viral vectors.


  • van Vloten, Jacob P
  • Klafuric, Elaine M
  • Karimi, Khalil
  • McFadden, Grant
  • Petrik, James
  • Wootton, Sarah K
  • Bridle, Byram W

publication date

  • September 2019