Accuracy of Resting Energy Expenditure Predictive Equations in Patients With Cancer
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BACKGROUND: Our purpose was to assess the accuracy of resting energy expenditure (REE) equations in patients with newly diagnosed stage I-IV non-small cell lung, rectal, colon, renal, or pancreatic cancer. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, REE was measured using indirect calorimetry and compared with 23 equations. Agreement between measured and predicted REE was assessed via paired t-tests, Bland-Altman analysis, and percent of estimations ≤ 10% of measured values. Accuracy was measured among subgroups of body mass index (BMI), stage (I-III vs IV), and cancer type (lung, rectal, and colon) categories. Fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were assessed using dual x-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Among 125 patients, most had lung, colon, or rectal cancer (92%, BMI: 27.5 ± 5.6 kg/m2 , age: 61 ± 11 years, REE: 1629 ± 321 kcal/d). Thirteen (56.5%) equations yielded REE values different than measured (P < 0.05). Limits of agreement were wide for all equations, with Mifflin-St. Jeor equation having the smallest limits of agreement, -21.7% to 11.3% (-394 to 203 kcal/d). Equations with FFM were not more accurate except for one equation (Huang with body composition; bias, limits of agreement: -0.3 ± 11.3% vs without body composition: 2.3 ± 10.1%, P < 0.001). Bias in body composition equations was consistently positively correlated with age and frequently negatively correlated with FM. Bias and limits of agreement were similar among subgroups of patients. CONCLUSION: REE cannot be accurately predicted on an individual level, and bias relates to age and FM.