15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 down-regulates CXCR4 on carcinoma cells through PPARγ- and NFκB-mediated pathways
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The chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays a key role in the metastasis of colorectal cancer and its growth at metastatic sites. Here, we have investigated the mechanisms by which CXCR4 on cancer cells might be regulated by eicosanoids present within the colorectal tumor microenvironment. We show that prostaglandins PGE(2), PGA(2), PGD(2), PGJ(2) and 15dPGJ(2) each down-regulates CXCR4 receptor expression on human colorectal carcinoma cells to differing degrees. The most potent of these were PGD(2) and its metabolites PGJ(2) and 15dPGJ(2). Down-regulation was most rapid with the end-product 15dPGJ(2) and was accompanied by a marked reduction in CXCR4 mRNA. 15dPGJ(2) is known to be a ligand for the nuclear receptor PPARgamma. Down-regulation of CXCR4 was also observed with the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone, while 15dPGJ(2)-induced CXCR4 down-regulation was substantially diminished by the PPARgamma antagonists GW9662 and T0070907. These data support the involvement of PPARgamma. However, the 15dPGJ(2) analogue CAY10410, which can act on PPARgamma but which lacks the intrinsic cyclopentenone structure found in 15dPGJ(2), down-regulated CXCR4 substantially less potently than 15dPGJ(2). The cyclopentenone grouping is known to inhibit the activity of NFkappaB. Consistent with an additional role for NFkappaB, we found that the cyclopentenone prostaglandin PGA(2) and cyclopentenone itself could also down-regulate CXCR4. Immunolocalization studies showed that the cellular context was sufficient to trigger a focal nuclear pattern of NFkappaB p50 and that 15dPGJ(2) interfered with this p50 nuclear localization. These data suggest that 15dPGJ(2) can down-regulate CXCR4 on cancer cells through both PPARgamma and NFkappaB. 15dPGJ(2), present within the tumor microenvironment, may act to down-regulate CXCR4 and impact upon the overall process of tumor expansion.
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