Identification of plant growth-promoting bacteria-responsive proteins in cucumber roots under hypoxic stress using a proteomic approach
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UNLABELLED: Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) can both facilitate plant growth and improve plant resistance to a variety of environmental stresses. In order to investigate the mechanisms that PGPB use to protect plants under hypoxic conditions, the protein profiles of stressed and non-stressed cucumber roots, either treated or not treated with PGPB, were examined. Two dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE) was used to detect significantly up- or down-regulated proteins (p<0.05, |ratio|>1.5) in cucumber roots in response to hypoxia. There were 1980, 1893 and 1735 protein spots detected from cucumber roots in the absence of stress in the presence of the PGPB Pseudomonas putida UW4, following hypoxic stress, and following hypoxic stress in the presence of P. putida UW4, respectively. The numbers of significantly changed protein spots were 0, 106, and 147 in these three treatments respectively. Proteins were identified by LTQ-MS/MS and categorized into classes corresponding to transcription, protein synthesis, signal transduction, carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism, defense stress, antioxidant, binding and others. The functions of the proteins whose expression changed significantly were analyzed in detail, contributing to a more thorough understanding of how PGPB mediate the stress response in plants. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, only a limited number of papers have addressed cucumber proteomics, this study is the first report to describe the effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria (P. putida UW4) on cucumber plants under hypoxic stress using a proteomic approach. Thus, this work provides new insights to understand the cross-reactivity between P. putida UW4 and cucumber plant. A model of cucumber roots in response to P. putida UW4 and hypoxia was proposed: P. putida UW4 and hypoxic stress caused changes of gene expression in cucumber roots, then transcription was stimulated, the proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, defense stress, antioxidant, binding and others were induced, these proteins might work cooperatively to release hypoxic stress and promote cucumber growth. These results describe a dynamic protein network to explain the promotion mechanism of P. putida UW4, and also provide a solid basis for further functional research of single nodes of this network.
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