Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the STarT Back Tool for Arabic speaking adults with low back pain in Saudi Arabia Journal Articles uri icon

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  • BACKGROUND: The STarT Back Tool (Subgrouping for Targeted Treatment; SBT) was developed and validated in the United Kingdom for adults with non-specific low back pain (LBP) to provide risk stratification groups. An Arabic version has not yet been developed. Consequently, our objectives were: First, to cross-culturally adapt the SBT for use in Arabic speaking adults (SBT-Ar) with LBP. Second, to assess the face, content and construct validity of SBT-Ar against relevant reference standards. METHODS: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study carried out in the outpatient department in a tertiary care hospital. A total of 59 participants (aged 18-60) with LBP able to read Arabic completed the questionnaire. SBT cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to published guidelines. Face and content validity were explored by individual interviews. Construct validity was assessed using pre-hypothesized correlations with relevant reference standards. RESULTS: Following 48 individual interviews the SBT final version was reached and demonstrated face and content validity. The SBT-Ar total score and psychosocial sub-scale had acceptable internal consistency and no redundancy (Cronbach α = 0.7). Moderate Spearman's correlations were found between the SBT-Ar total score and reference standards (Arabic Pain Numeric Rating Scale NRS-Ar r = 0.50 and Arabic Oswestry Disability Index ODI-ar r = 0.51). As expected the SBT-Ar psychosocial subscale had medium to high correlations with the psychosocial reference measures (Arabic Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire Physical Activity FABQPA-Ar r = 0.41, Arabic Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety HADSA-Ar r = 0.58, Arabic Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression HADSD-Ar r = 0.45 and Arabic Pain Catastrophizing Scale PCSAr r = 0.69).The SBT-Ar showed no significant floor or ceiling effects. CONCLUSION: This study culturally adapted and preliminary validated SBT into Arabic. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, Cross-sectional.


  • Elsabbagh, Lina
  • Al-Atwi, Tasneem
  • Aldossary, Dhai
  • Alshami, Ali M
  • Hill, Jonathan C
  • Abu-Ras, Wahiba
  • Huijer, Huda Abu-Saad
  • Brooks, Dina

publication date

  • March 2019

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