The prognostic significance of frailty compared to peak oxygen consumption and B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with advanced heart failure
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Frailty assessment has become an integral part of the evaluation of potential candidates for heart transplantation and ventricular assist device (HTx/VAD). The impact of frailty, as a heart failure risk factor or to identify those who will derive the greatest benefit with HTx/VAD remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the independent prognostic relevance of frailty assessment from peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2 ) or B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) on mortality in patients referred for advanced heart failure therapies. Frailty was measured using modified Fried frailty criteria. In 201 consecutive patients, during a median follow-up of 17.5 months (IQR 11-29.2), there were 25 (12.4%) deaths. One-year survival was 100%, 94%, and 78% in nonfrail, prefrail, and frail patients, respectively (log rank P = .0001). Frailty was associated with a twofold increase risk of death (HR 2.01, P < .0001, 95% CI 1.42-2.84). When adjusted for BNP or peak VO2 , frailty was not associated with a significant risk of all-cause death. However, when peak VO2 is stratified into two categories (≥12 mL/kg/min vs <12 mL/kg/min), frailty was associated with increased mortality in patients with a lower peak VO2 (HR 1.72, P = .006).
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