Prevalence of Asthma and Allergies and Risk of Relapse in Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome: Insight into Nephrotic Syndrome Cohort
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OBJECTIVE: To determine the lifetime prevalence of allergies in childhood nephrotic syndrome, the seasonality of presentation and relapses, and the impact of allergies on subsequent relapses. STUDY DESIGN: In a longitudinal cohort of children with nephrotic syndrome (ages 1-18 years), assessment for allergic diseases was conducted using the validated and modified version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire at enrollment. Outcomes included frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome, relapse rates, and the relapse-free duration after initial steroid therapy. RESULTS: Among 277 participants, the majority were male (65%) with a median age of 3.7 years (IQR 2.8-5.8) at presentation. A total of 64% reported lifetime allergies with 20% having asthma, 33% wheezing, 27% eczema, and 24% rhinitis. Over 3.3 years of follow-up, presence of asthma and allergies was not associated with frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (OR 1.20; 95% CI 0.60, 2.40), higher relapse rates (relative risk 0.95; 95% CI 0.71, 1.27), or risk of first relapse (hazard ratio 1.10; 95% CI 0.83, 1.47) compared with those with no history of allergic diseases. There was also no seasonal variation evident at initial presentation or frequency of relapses. CONCLUSIONS: Two-thirds of children with nephrotic syndrome at presentation have allergic symptoms and asthma; however, neither are associated with an increased frequency of relapses.
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