Adaptation and Preliminary Validation of the Advance Care Planning Engagement Survey for Surrogate Decision Makers
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CONTEXT: Although measures that assess patient engagement in the advance care planning (ACP) process exist, there are no validated tools to assess surrogate decision makers' (SDMs') role in ACP. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to adapt and begin to validate a patient-oriented questionnaire for use with SDMs of patients with chronic illness. METHODS: Questions from the 55-item patient-oriented ACP engagement survey were adapted for SDMs and assessed for face validity. The resultant 47-item questionnaire was administered to 65 SDMs of patients with chronic illness. Responses were assessed and items were flagged for removal based on item redundancy, nonresponses, and ceiling effects. A preliminary exploratory factor analysis was performed, internal consistency was assessed, and domains were constructed based on findings. RESULTS: The 47-item questionnaire was administered to 65 participants (mean age 51.8; 81% female; 96% Caucasian). Seventeen items were removed owing to redundancy (r > 0.80), and 13 items lacking face validity were removed. In a preliminary exploratory factor analysis of the resultant 17-item questionnaire, a three-factor solution was deemed most statistically and conceptually sound. Items were organized into domains: 1) serving as an SDM (seven items); 2) contemplation (four items); 3) readiness (six items). Internal consistency for each domain was high (Cronbach alpha 0.90-0.91). CONCLUSION: The 17-item ACP engagement survey for SDMs (ACP-17-SDM) is a conceptually sound and reliable questionnaire adaptation of the original ACP engagement survey. This questionnaire may be used by researchers in parallel with the patient-oriented ACP engagement survey to more fully understand the impact of ACP interventions on SDMs. Larger studies are needed to more closely examine construct validity.
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