Experimental quantification of the free-carrier effect in silicon waveguides at extended wavelengths
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We examine the electro-optic effect at wavelengths ranging from 1.31 to 2.02 μm for: (1) an Electronic Variable Optical Attenuator (EVOA); and (2) a Micro-Ring Resonator (MRR). For the EVOA, simulations were performed to ascertain the relationship between free-carrier concentration and optical attenuation, and are in agreement with our observation of an increase in attenuation with increasing wavelength. MRRs were fabricated for use around wavelengths of 2 μm to explore the sensitivity of operation to bus-to-ring coupling gap and p-n junction offset. Trends observed in the experiment are replicated by simulation, calibrated using the observations of the EVOA operation. The previously proposed efficiency increase of operation around 2 μm compared to more traditional wavelengths is demonstrated. Future development of devices for these wavelengths, supported by amplification using Thulium Doped Fiber Amplifier (TDFA) technology, is a promising route to aid in the alleviation of increasing demands on communication networks.
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