Use of a Multitarget Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay to Diagnose Bladder Cancer in Patients With Hematuria
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PURPOSE: We evaluated the multitarget UroVysion fluorescence in situ hybridization assay for the diagnosis of bladder cancer in patients with hematuria and no history of bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multicenter, blinded trial was performed to compare the sensitivity of the fluorescence in situ hybridization assay to that of voided cytology in patients with gross or microscopic hematuria. Confirmation of hematuria was required. Voided urine was sent to a central laboratory for each study before cystoscopy. Suspicious lesions on cystoscopy were biopsied or resected. A centrally reviewed histopathological interpretation was used to confirm cancer and assign grade and stage. RESULTS: A total of 497 patients were enrolled at 23 centers and in 473 (95.2%) fluorescence in situ hybridization and cytology results were interpretable. Bladder cancer was diagnosed histologically in 50 patients (10.1%) and ureteral cancer was diagnosed in 1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization assay detected 69% of cases and cytology detected 38% (95% CI 25 to 52). When low grade, low stage (TaG1) tumors were excluded, fluorescence in situ hybridization detected 25 of 30 cancers (84%), while cytology detected only 15 (50%). Of 265 current or past smokers with hematuria and positive fluorescence in situ hybridization assay findings bladder cancer was detected in 65% with a history of greater than 40 pack-years compared to 13.6% to 24.2% in those with no, less than a 20 or a 20 to 40-pack-year smoking history. CONCLUSIONS: The UroVysion fluorescence in situ hybridization assay is significantly more sensitive than voided cytology for detecting bladder cancer in patients evaluated for gross or microscopic hematuria for all grades and stages. Based on these data UroVysion was approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in patients with hematuria.
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