Respiratory Syncytial Virus Prophylaxis in Infants With Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia in the Canadian Respiratory Syncytial Virus Evaluation Study of Palivizumab, 2005–2017 Journal Articles uri icon

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  • Abstract Background Infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) are at an increased risk of respiratory morbidity from recurrent respiratory tract infections including those from respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Prospective studies on RSV prophylaxis in CDH infants are limited. We determined the risk of respiratory illness– and RSV-related hospitalizations (RIH and RSVH, respectively) among infants prophylaxed for CDH, standard indications (SIs) and those without increased risk (NR). Methods The prospective Canadian Respiratory Syncytial Virus Evaluation Study of Palivizumab (CARESS) registry was searched for infants who received palivizumab during 12 RSV seasons (2005–2017) in Canada. Cox proportional hazards analyses were conducted to compare RIH and RSVH risks across the groups adjusted for potential confounders. Results In total, 21 107 infants (201 CDH, 389 NR, and 20 517 SI) were included. RIH incidences were 10.0% (CDH), 2.1% (NR), and 6.2% (SI). CDH patients had a significantly higher RIH hazard compared with NR (hazard ratio [HR], 3.6 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.5–8.8]; P = .005) but not SI (HR, 1.2 [95% CI, .8–2.0]; P = .379). RSVH incidences were 0.6%, 0.3%, and 1.5% for CDH, NR, and SI, respectively. RSVH risk was similar across groups (SI: HR, 0.0, P = .922; NR: HR, 0.0, P = .934). Conclusions CDH infants had a 3-fold increased risk of RIH compared to NR but not SI infants. RSVH risk was similar with low RSVH incidences across all groups, implying that CDH infants may benefit from palivizumab during the RSV season, similar to other high-risk groups. Clinical Trials Registration NCT00420966.


  • Kim, Doyoung
  • Saleem, Mahwesh
  • Paes, Bosco
  • Mitchell, Ian
  • Lanctôt, Krista L

publication date

  • August 30, 2019

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