Nod1-mediated lipolysis promotes diacylglycerol accumulation and successive inflammation via PKCδ-IRAK axis in adipocytes
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Chronic inflammation contributes to obesity mediated metabolic disturbances, including insulin resistance. Obesity is associated with altered microbial load in metabolic tissues that can contribute to metabolic inflammation. Different bacterial components such as, LPS, peptidoglycans have been shown to underpin metabolic disturbances through interaction with host innate immune receptors. Activation of Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (Nod1) with specific peptidoglycan moieties promotes insulin resistance, inflammation and lipolysis in adipocytes. However, it was not clear how Nod1-mediated lipolysis and inflammation is linked. Here, we tested if Nod1-mediated lipolysis caused accumulation of lipid intermediates and promoted cell autonomous inflammation in adipocytes. We showed that Nod1-mediated lipolysis caused accumulation of diacylglycerol (DAG) and activation of PKCδ in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which was prevented with a Nod1 inhibitor. Nod1-activated PKCδ caused downstream stimulation of IRAK1/4 and was associated with increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as, IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, TNFα and MCP-1. Pharmacological inhibition or siRNA mediated knockdown of IRAK1/4 attenuated Nod1-mediated activation of NF-κB, JNK, and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. These results reveal that Nod1-mediated lipolysis promoted accumulation of DAG, which engaged PKCδ and IRAK1/4 to augment inflammation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
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