To examine the role of opioid neurons on luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in the female rabbit, we determined LH release at timed intervals after naloxone administration to rabbits aged 25–150 days. The LH response to naloxone (10 mg/kg) was not significantly elevated until day 43 when LH rose 76–113% above basal levels at 40–80 min. In 56-day-old females the corresponding increase was 160% at 15 min and in 65- to 67-day-olds it was 154%. From 70 to 80 days of age the LH response was blunted and no significant elevations could be elicited. By contrast, naloxone-induced LH increases were again evident when rabbits were older than 100 days. At all ages no significant change in FSH concentrations was observed. In the adult females, naloxone at 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg caused increases in LH secretion which occasionally were high enough to induce ovulation as exemplified by elevated serum progesterone 4 days later. These data suggest that opioid peptides may be involved in the prepubertal rise in LH and in the normal inhibition of adult secretion in the female rabbit.