The possible role of capillary cerebral amyloid angiopathy in Alzheimer lesion development: a regional comparison
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Recent studies have observed beta-amyloid-positive capillaries in lesion-prone regions of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. It is possible that there is a pathogenic link between neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and/or senile plaques (SPs) and altered capillary structure/function. In this study, we examined and compared brain tissue from a frequently observed NFT abundant area, the superior temporal cortex (ST), and a comparatively much NFT sparser area, the calcarine cortex (COC), in ten AD and ten normal adult control brain samples. We recorded the densities of NFTs, and beta-amyloid(8-17,40,42) peptide forms in SPs, capillaries and large vessels [cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)] in these areas. Our results demonstrated that there was a significant difference between the means of NFT and SP beta(8-17,40) lesions when comparing the ST and COC cortical regions in both AD and control brains. In AD brains, we observed a positive correlation between NFTs and SPs in both regions, and between NFTs and beta-amyloid-positive capillaries and CAA vessels, particularly in the calcarine cortex. In addition, significant correlations were observed between some SP beta-amyloid peptide forms and CAA beta(42), in particular, in both regions. These new observations support the view that there are regional (focal) differences in the presence of each AD lesion, and that there may be a pathogenic relationship between the development of AD lesions and beta-amyloid-positive vessels. The data are also consistent with the concept that a focally dysfunctional blood-brain barrier (BBB) that is unable to regulate the influx/efflux of neurotoxic amyloid peptides may participate in the pathogenesis of AD lesions.
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