Evaluating Nurses' Implementation of an Infant-Feeding Counseling Protocol for HIV-Infected Mothers: The Ban Study in Lilongwe, Malawi Journal Articles uri icon

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  • A process evaluation of nurses' implementation of an infant-feeding counseling protocol was conducted for the Breastfeeding, Antiretroviral and Nutrition (BAN) Study, a prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV clinical trial in Lilongwe, Malawi. Six trained nurses counseled HIV-infected mothers to exclusively breastfeed for 24 weeks postpartum and to stop breastfeeding within an additional four weeks. Implementation data were collected via direct observations of 123 infant feeding counseling sessions (30 antenatal and 93 postnatal) and interviews with each nurse. Analysis included calculating a percent adherence to checklists and conducting a content analysis for the observation and interview data. Nurses were implementing the protocol at an average adherence level of 90% or above. Although not detailed in the protocol, nurses appropriately counseled mothers on their actual or intended formula milk usage after weaning. Results indicate that nurses implemented the protocol as designed. Results will help to interpret the BAN Study's outcomes.


  • Bangdiwala, Shrikant
  • Ferguson, Yvonne Owens
  • Eng, Eugenia
  • Bentley, Margaret
  • Sandelowski, Margarete
  • Steckler, Allan
  • Randall-David, Elizabeth
  • Piwoz, Ellen G
  • Zulu, Cynthia
  • Chasela, Charles
  • Soko, Alice
  • Tembo, Martin
  • Martinson, Francis
  • Tohill, Beth Carlton
  • Ahmed, Yusuf
  • Kazembe, Peter
  • Jamieson, Denise J
  • van der Horst, Charles

publication date

  • April 2009