Bladder cancer local staging: multiparametric MRI performance following transurethral resection
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PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) for the local staging of bladder cancer following transurethral resection of bladder tumor. METHODS: This Institutional Review Board-approved, retrospective study identified 45 patients with pathology-proven bladder cancer who underwent transurethral resection followed by mpMRI between August 2011 and October 2016. Two radiologists reviewed each MRI independently and assigned T and N stage. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy were calculated for the presence of muscle invasion (T2 or higher), peri-vesical invasion (T3 or higher), and regional nodal disease compared to findings at cystectomy as the reference standard. Inter-observer agreement was measured using Cohen's κ coefficient. RESULTS: Of 45 patients, 13% were stage T2, 27% T3, 16% T4; of 40 patients, 28% had regional nodal disease. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of mpMRI for readers 1 and 2, respectively, were muscle invasion, 92% and 88%, 74% and 84%, 81% and 88%, 88% and 84%, 84% and 86%; peri-vesical invasion, 72% and 67%, 92% and 92%, 87% and 86%, 81% and 79%, 83% and 81%; regional nodal disease, 45% and 45%, 93% and 90%, 71% and 63%, 82% and 81%, 80% and 78%. Inter-observer agreement was good using all sequences. CONCLUSIONS: mpMRI was both sensitive and specific in the detection of muscle invasive bladder cancer, and was specific but not sensitive for both peri-vesical invasion and nodal involvement. mpMRI may have a role at locally staging bladder cancer following transurethral resection.
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