Prediction of Area under the Cyclosporine Concentration Versus Time Curve in Children Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
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This prospective study aimed to validate a previously developed first-dose limited sampling strategy (LSS) to predict the area under the cyclosporine concentration-versus-time curve (AUC) and to develop and then validate an LSS to predict cyclosporine AUC at steady state. This two-center Canadian study included children (ages .4 to 17.2 years) undergoing myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation receiving cyclosporine for acute graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. There were three cohorts, each incorporating 24 AUC determinations: first-dose LSS validation, steady-state LSS development, and steady-state LSS validation. Patients contributing data to either of the development cohorts were excluded from the corresponding validation group. Cyclosporine was given every 12 hours as a 2-hour infusion. Cyclosporine AUC was determined after administration of the first cyclosporine dose (8 samples) and then once weekly (9 samples) until engraftment. Steady-state LSSs were developed using stepwise multiple linear regression. An LSS was considered to provide an acceptable estimate of AUC if the lower limit of the 95% confidence limit (CL) of the intraclass coefficient was .8 or higher and both bias and precision were 15% or less. Fifty-three children age .4 to 18 years participated. Cyclosporine concentrations drawn up to 4 hours from the start of the infusion correlated most strongly with AUC. The previously developed first-dose LSSs and three steady-state LSSs met criteria for acceptability. The intraclass coefficients of the three-point first-dose LSS validation cohort, three-point steady-state LSS development cohort, and three-point steady-state LSS validation cohort were .974 (95% CL: .941 to .988), .984 (95% CL: .965 to .993), and .993 (95% CL: .984 to .997), respectively. The three-point first-dose (2, 6, and 8 hours) and steady-state (2, 2.5, and 8 hours) LSSs are valid measures of cyclosporine AUC after intravenous administration over 2 hours. Their use in a prospective evaluation of the relationship between cyclosporine AUC and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation clinical outcomes in children is suggested.
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