Imaging of childhood angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma with pathological correlation
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BACKGROUND: Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma is a rare soft-tissue tumor that more often affects children and young adults. There is little information available regarding the imaging appearance of angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma in children. OBJECTIVE: To describe the ultrasonographic (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was done of US and MR imaging findings in children with angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma. Clinical findings and histopathology with molecular analysis results were also collected. RESULTS: There were 7 children with angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma with a median age of 6 years (age range: 16 months-14 years). Patients presented clinically with a soft-tissue mass in the extremities or in the trunk. Four children had anemia, and three of them had additional systemic symptoms. Two patients had US and three had MR imaging while the remaining two had both. Lesion size ranged from 1.3 cm to 7.2 cm. In four patients, angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma presented as a nonspecific predominantly solid mass. The other three patients had a combination of the following imaging findings: intralesional blood-filled cystic spaces with fluid-fluid levels, enhancing fibrous pseudocapsule and hemosiderin deposition. These findings correlated well with histopathology. CONCLUSION: The imaging detection of intralesional blood-filled cystic spaces with fluid-fluid levels, enhancing fibrous pseudocapsule and hemosiderin deposition in a soft-tissue tumor in a child may suggest the diagnosis of angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma. A history of systemic symptoms and anemia in the presence of a soft-tissue mass may also be a clue for the diagnosis of angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma.
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