Biotinidase is a Novel Marker for Papillary Thyroid Cancer Aggressiveness
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Biotinidase was identified in secretome analysis of thyroid cancer cell lines using proteomics. The goal of the current study was to analyze the expression of biotinidase in thyroid cancer tissues and fine needle aspiration (FNA) samples to evaluate its diagnostic and prognostic potential in thyroid cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of biotinidase was carried out in 129 papillary thyroid cancer (PTC, 34 benign thyroid tissues and 43 FNA samples and correlated with patients' prognosis. Overall biotinidase expression was decreased in PTC compared to benign nodules (p = 0.001). Comparison of aggressive and non-aggressive PTC showed decrease in overall biotinidase expression in the former (p = 0.001). Loss of overall biotinidase expression was associated with poor disease free survival (p = 0.019, Hazards ratio (HR) = 3.1). We examined the effect of subcellular compartmentalization of nuclear and cytoplasmic biotinidase on patient survival. Decreased nuclear expression of biotinidase was observed in PTC as compared to benign tissues (p<0.001). Upon stratification within PTC, nuclear expression was reduced in aggressive as compared to non-aggressive tumors (p<0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed significant association of loss of nuclear biotinidase expression with reduced disease free survival (p = 0.014, HR = 5.4). Cytoplasmic biotinidase expression was reduced in aggressive thyroid cancers in comparison with non-aggressive tumors (p = 0.002, Odds ratio (OR) = 0.29) which was evident by its significant association with advanced T stage (p = 0.003, OR = 0.28), nodal metastasis (p<0.001, OR = 0.16), advanced TNM stage (p<0.001, OR = 0.21) and extrathyroidal extension (p = 0.001, OR = 0.23). However, in multivariate analysis extrathyroidal extension emerged as the most significant prognostic marker for aggressive thyroid carcinomas (p = 0.015, HR = 12.8). In conclusion, loss of overall biotinidase expression is a novel marker for thyroid cancer aggressiveness.
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