Design and rationale of the Treatment of Acute Coronary Syndromes with Otamixaban trial: A double-blind triple-dummy 2-stage randomized trial comparing otamixaban to unfractionated heparin and eptifibatide in non–ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes with a planned early invasive strategy
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BACKGROUND: Otamixaban is a synthetic intravenous direct factor Xa inhibitor, with rapid onset/offset, linear kinetics, and no significant renal elimination. A phase II trial in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) showed a marked reduction in the combined end point of death or myocardial infarction (MI) and similar bleeding rates with otamixaban at midrange doses, compared with unfractionated heparin (UFH) and eptifibatide. DESIGN: The TAO trial is a phase III, randomized, double-blind, triple-dummy controlled trial testing the efficacy of otamixaban over UFH plus eptifibatide in patients with non-ST-segment elevation ACS to be treated with dual oral antiplatelet therapy and an invasive strategy. Approximately 13,220 patients in 55 countries will be randomized (1:1:1 ratio) to receive UFH plus downstream eptifibatide (started pre-percutaneous coronary intervention and continued per label) or otamixaban (0.08 mg/kg intravenous bolus at randomization then 0.100 or 0.140 mg/kg per hour intravenous infusion). An interim analysis was performed after ≥1,969 patients per arm completed 7 days of follow-up and the Data Monitoring Committee selected 1 otamixaban dose (blinded to investigators) to be carried forward using a prespecified algorithm. The primary efficacy outcome is the composite of all-cause mortality or new MI through day 7. The primary safety outcome is thrombolysis in MI major or minor bleeding through day 7. Secondary outcomes include all-cause mortality, recurrent ischemia/infarction resulting in prolonged/recurrent hospitalization, periprocedural angiographic complications, and pharmacokinetic data in 6,000 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The TAO trial will assess the clinical efficacy and safety of otamixaban in non-ST-segment elevation ACS with planned invasive strategy.
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