Gastric carcinoids: a temporal increase with proton pump introduction
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BACKGROUND: Recent reports have indicated a rising incidence of gastric carcinoids. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence pattern of gastric carcinoids in two large population-based cancer registries. METHODS: The Florida Cancer Data System (FCDS), Florida's statewide cancer registry, and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program were used. The study population was defined as all cases of gastric carcinoid identified in either database from January 1981 to December 2000. Descriptive statistics and age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated. RESULTS: There were 326 (FCDS) and 594 (SEER) cases of invasive gastric carcinoid during the 20-year study period. The mean age of the patients was 65 years (range, 21-96 years), and the male:female ratio was 1:1. The age-adjusted incidence rate in FCDS increased from 0.04 (per 100,000 age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population) to 0.18 in the year 2000. The estimated annual percentage change in incidence was 8.17 in FCDS and 9.17 in SEER (p < 0.05). A decrease in gastric cancer was noted during this same period (from 8.64 to 11.14 cases per 100,000 in FCDS and from 11.14 to 8.06 cases per 100,000 in SEER). CONCLUSIONS: This study documented a statistically significant eight- or ninefold increase in the incidence of gastric carcinoids in two large databases. The temporal increase in incidence correlates with the introduction and widespread use of proton pump inhibitors since the late 1980s. Other explanations include improved detection with wider application of upper endoscopy. Further epidemiologic studies are warranted.
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