The Orphan Nuclear Hormone Receptor LXR Interacts with the Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor and Inhibits Peroxisome Proliferator Signaling
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The yeast two-hybrid system was used to isolate novel cellular factors that interact with the mouse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). One of the interacting clones isolated encoded LXRalpha, a recently described human orphan nuclear hormone receptor. LXRalpha bound directly to PPARalpha, as well as to the common heterodimerization partner 9-cis-retinoic acid receptor (RXRalpha). LXRalpha did not form a DNA binding complex with PPARalpha on synthetic hormone response elements composed of direct repeats of the TGACCT consensus half-site or on naturally occurring peroxisome proliferator response elements (PPREs) or LXRalpha response elements. However, LXRalpha inhibited binding of PPARalpha/RXRalpha heterodimers to PPREs, and coexpression of LXRalpha in mammalian cells antagonized peroxisome proliferator signaling mediated by PPARalpha/RXRalpha in vivo. These findings identify a novel partner for PPARalpha and suggest that LXRalpha plays a role in modulating PPAR-signaling pathways in the cell.
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