Validity and Responsiveness of the Short Version of the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (Short-WORC) in Patients With Rotator Cuff Repair
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Study Design Clinical measurement. Background Recently, the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC) was shortened, but few studies have reported its measurement properties. Objective To compare the validity and responsiveness of the short version of the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (Short-WORC) and the WORC (disease-specific measures) with those of the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and the simple shoulder test (SST) (joint-specific measures); the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) (a region-specific measure); and the Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey version 2 (SF-12v2) (a general health status measure) in patients undergoing rotator cuff repair (RCR). Methods A cohort of patients (n = 223) completed the WORC, SPADI, SST, DASH, and SF-12v2 preoperatively and at 3 and 6 months after RCR. Short-WORC scores were extracted from the WORC questionnaire. The construct validity (Pearson correlations) and internal responsiveness (effect size [ES], standardized response mean [SRM], relative efficiency [RE]) of the Short-WORC were calculated. Results The Short-WORC was strongly correlated with the WORC (r = 0.89-0.96) and moderately to strongly correlated with non-disease-specific measures at preoperative and postoperative assessments (r = 0.51-0.92). The Short-WORC and WORC were equally responsive (REShort-WORC/WORC = 1) at 0 to 6 months and highly responsive overall at 0 to 3 months (ESShort-WORC, 0.72; ESWORC, 0.92; SRMShort-WORC, 0.75; SRMWORC, 0.81) and 0 to 6 months (ESShort-WORC, 1.05; ESWORC, 1.12; SRMShort-WORC, 0.89; SRMWORC, 0.89). The responsiveness of the comparator measures (SPADI, SST, DASH, SF-12v2) was poor to moderate at 0 to 3 months (ES, 0.07-0.55; SRM, 0.09-0.49) and 0 to 6 months (ES, 0.05-0.78; SRM, 0.07-0.78). Conclusion The Short-WORC and WORC have similar responsiveness in patients undergoing RCR, and are more responsive than non-disease-specific measures. Future studies should focus on validation of the Short-WORC in samples representing the spectrum of rotator cuff disorders. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2018;48(5):409-418. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.7928.
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