p21 is essential for normal myogenic progenitor cell function in regenerating skeletal muscle
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Despite the ability of myogenic progenitor cells (MPCs) to completely regenerate skeletal muscle following injury, little is known regarding the molecular program that regulates their proliferation and differentiation. Although mice lacking the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 (p21-/-), develop normally, we report here that p21-/- MPCs display increased cell number and enhanced cell cycle progression compared with wild-type MPCs. Therefore, we hypothesized that p21-/- mice would demonstrate temporally enhanced regeneration following myotrauma. In response to cardiotoxin-induced injury, p21-/- skeletal muscle regeneration was significantly attenuated vs. regenerating wild-type muscle, contrary to the hypothesis. Regenerating p21-/- skeletal muscle displayed increased proliferative (PCNA positive) nuclei coincident with increased apoptotic nuclei (TUNEL positive) compared with wild-type muscle up to 3 wk after injury. Differentiation of p21-/- MPCs was markedly impaired and associated with increased apoptosis compared with wild-type MPCs, confirming that the impaired differentiation of the p21-/- MPCs was a cell autonomous event. No dysregulation of p27, p53, or p57 protein expression in differentiating p21-/- MPCs compared with wild-type MPCs was observed, suggesting that other compensatory mechanisms are responsible for the regeneration that ultimately occurs. On the basis of these findings, we propose that p21 is essential for the coordination of cell cycle exit and differentiation in the adult MPC population and that in the absence of p21, skeletal muscle regeneration is markedly impaired.
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