Reference equations for the interpretation of forced expiratory and plethysmographic measurements in infants Journal Articles uri icon

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  • AbstractBackgroundPulmonary function testing is commonly performed for diagnosis and clinical management of respiratory diseases. It is important to use appropriate reference equations from healthy subjects for interpretation of data from infants with lung disease. This study aimed to determine if published reference equations were similar to forced flow measures and plethysmographic infant pulmonary function testing data collected in the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study.MethodsReference equations for five pulmonary function variables (FEV0.5, FVC, FEF25‐75, FEV0.5/FVC ratio and plethysmography (FRCpleth)) were developed using data from the nSpire system. New reference equations developed using healthy data from the CHILD Study were compared to previously published reference equations for forced flow and plethysmographic measures.ResultsThe current analysis included 131 infants (on 181 test occasions) with forced flow measures and 161 infants (on 246 test occasions) with plethysmography measures, aged 3–24 months. Age and length were major determinants of both forced flow and plethysmography measures. In addition, ethnicity (Caucasian vs non‐Caucasian) was significantly associated with FEV0.5/FVC and FEF25‐75 measures. We found that the published reference equations based on custom‐built equipment or commercially available systems provided poor fit to our current pulmonary function testing data, resulting in placing a large proportion of our healthy population outside the normal ranges.ConclusionsOur current data support the need for population and device specific reference data for infant pulmonary function studies. By deriving new equipment‐specific reference equations for our healthy population, we provide normative data to other centers utilizing this equipment.


  • Lu, Zihang
  • Foong, Rachel E
  • Kowalik, Krzysztof
  • Moraes, Theo J
  • Dubeau, Aimee
  • Lefebvre, Diana
  • Davis, Stephanie D
  • Balkovec, Susan
  • Becker, Allan
  • Mandhane, Piush
  • Turvey, Stuart E
  • Lou, Wendy
  • Sears, Malcolm
  • Ratjen, Felix
  • Subbarao, Padmaja

publication date

  • July 2018