Glucagon-like peptide-2-enhanced barrier function reduces pathophysiology in a model of food allergy
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Penetration of the gut epithelial barrier by intact luminal antigen is necessary for immunologically mediated pathophysiology in the context of food allergy. We investigated if glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) could affect immediate hypersensitivity and late-phase allergic inflammation in a murine model. Mice were sensitized to horseradish peroxidase (HRP); studies were conducted 14 days later. Mice were treated with 5 microg GLP-2 subcutaneously 4 h before antigen challenge. For immediate hypersensitivity, jejunal segments in Ussing chambers were challenged by luminal HRP antigen. GLP-2 treatment reduced the uptake of HRP and the antigen-induced secretory response after luminal challenge. GLP-2 appears to reduce macromolecular uptake independent of the CD23-mediated enhanced antigen uptake pathway. For the late phase, mice were gavaged with antigen, and 48 h later the function and histology of the jejunum were examined. GLP-2 prevented the usual prolonged permeability defect and reduced the number of inflammatory cells in the mucosa. Our studies demonstrate that a single treatment of sensitized mice with GLP diminishes both immediate and late-phase hypersensitivity reactions characteristic of food allergy by inhibiting transepithelial uptake of antigen.
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